1. Due to shrinkage stresses, a simply supported beam having reinforcement only at bottom tends to

2. Diagonal tension in a beam

3. When shear stress exceeds the permissible limit in a slab, then it is reduced by

4. The temperature reinforcement in the vertical slab of a T-shaped R.C. retaining wall is

5. The diameter of ties in a column should be

6. According to IS: 4561978, the column or the strut is the member whose effective length is greater than

7. Bulking of sand is maximum if moisture content is about

8. To minimise the effect of differential settlement, the area of a footing should be designed for

9. In counterfort retaining walls, the main reinforcement in the stem at support is

10. The purpose of reinforcement in pre-stressed concrete is

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